特寫:“武漢加油!香港同胞為您打氣!”

3I5VM-news 发布时间: 2020-07-09 10:45:13

“5分赛车单期计划”TheGeneralCongressmetatPhiladelphiaonthe4thofSeptember,whenallthedelegates,exceptthoseofNorthCarolina,whodidnotarrivetillthe14th,werefoundtorepresenttwelveStates,namely,thefourNewEnglandStates,Virginia,Pennsylvania,Maryland,NewYork,NewJersey,Delaware,andthetwoCarolinas.Itwassettled,however,that,whateverthenumberofdelegates,eachcolonyshouldhaveonevote.ThenextdaytheyassembledinCarpenters'Hallforbusiness,andelectedPeytonRandolph,lateSpeakeroftheVirginianHouseofBurgesses,president.Itwassoonfoundthatsomuchdiversityofopinionprevailed,itwasdeemedprudent,inordertopreservetheairofunanimity,todeliberatewithcloseddoors.ItwasclearthatMassachusettsandVirginiawerereadyforwar;butitbecameequallyclearthatotherStatesyet[213]clungwithalltheattachmentofbloodandoldconnectiontothefatherland.Strongandlong-continued,accordingtoMr.JosephGalloway,oneoftheirownmembers,werethedebates;andthoughtheyfinally,and,fromtheirsystemofsecrecy,withanairofunanimity,drewupstrongresolutions,theyweremoremoderatelyexpressedthantheinstructionsofmanyofthedelegates.TheyagreedtoaDeclarationofRights,inwhichtheyassertedthattheyhadneitherlosttherightsofnature,northeprivilegesofEnglishmen,byemigration;consequently,thatthelateActsofParliamenthadbeengrossviolationsofthoserights,especiallyasaffectingMassachusetts.Theythereforepassedresolutionstosuspendallimports,oruseofimportedgoods,untilharmonywasrestoredbetweenGreatBritainandhercolonies.Anassociationwasformedtocarrytheseresolutionsout,towhicheverymembersubscribed.Havingadjournedtillthe10thofMayofthenextyear,theCongressdissolveditselfonthe26thofOctober,andthedelegatesthenhastenedhometokeepalivetheflameoftheirrevivedzealineveryquarterofthecontinent.

[Seelargerversion]

ST.GEORGE'SCATHEDRAL,SOUTHWARK.

AsforSpain,sheabandonedalldesignsonPortugal,andrestoredthecolonyofSacramento;andshesurrenderedeverypointonwhichherdeclarationofwaragainstEnglandwasbased—namely,therighttofishonthecoastofNewfoundland;therefusaltoallowustocutlogwoodinHonduras;andtoadmitthesettlementofquestionsofcapturebyourcourtsoflaw.

Insuchcircumstancesclosedtheyear1789.TheintenseexcitementwhichtherapidcourseoftheseFrencheventshadproducedinEnglandhadnearlysupersededallothertopicsofinterest.Atfirsttherewasanalmostuniversaljubilationoverthiswonderfulrevolution.ThedreadfulstateofmiseryandoppressiontowhichFrancehadbeenreduced;thefearfulexactions;thesystemofpopularignorancemaintainedbypriestcraft;theabominablefeudalinsolence;theabuseoflettresdecachet;andtheinternalobstructionsofcustomsandbarriersbetweenoneprovinceandanother,madeeveryfriendoffreedomdesirousofseeingallthesesweptaway.TheearlyprogressoftheirdestructionwashailedwithenthusiasminEngland.Eventheretiredandtimidpoet,CowpersangatriumphalnoteonthefalloftheBastille;butsoonthebloodyfuryofthepopulace,andthedomineeringcharacteroftheAssembly,whichdidnotdeigntostopattheproperconstitutionallimits,begantocreatedistrustandalarm.Amongstthefirsttoperceiveandtodenouncethisworkofanarchyratherthanofreform,wasBurke.IncommonwithFoxandPitt,andmanyotherstatesmen,hehadrejoicedinthefallofthecorruptgovernmentofFrance;buthesoonbegantoperceivethatthepeopleweredisplayingthesameferociouscharacterasinalltheirformeroutbreaks."If,"hewrotetoM.Menonville,amoderateMemberoftheAssembly,"anyofthesehorriddeedsweretheactsoftherulers,whatarewetothinkofthearmedpeopleundersuchrulers?Butiftherebenorulersinreality,andthechiefsaredrivenbeforethepeopleratherthanleadthem;andifthearmedcorpsarecomposedofmenwhohavenofixedprincipleofobedience,andaremovedonlybytheprevalenceofsomegeneralinclination,whocanreputehimselfsafeamongstapeoplesofuriousandsosenseless?"Ashecontinuedtogaze,hewascompelledtoconfessthathesawnogreatandwiseprinciplesoflegislationdisplayedbytheAssembly;butthatitwentondestroying,withoutknowinghowtorebuildinamannerlikelytolastortoworkanyoneanygood.Thewholeoftheconstitution-making,whichannihilatedtheroyalpower,whicherectednosecondchamber,butabsorbedallauthorityintotheAssembly,amixedandheterogeneousbody,hedeclaredtobeabunglingandmonstrousperformance.Ontheotherhand,Dr.Price,Dr.Priestley,andnumbersofequallyenthusiasticmen,sawnothingbutwhatwasanimatingintheprogressoftheFrenchRevolution."TheRevolutionSociety,"includingmanyofthehighestnamesoftheWhigaristocracy,whichwasaccustomedtomeetonthe5thofNovember,tocelebratetheanniversaryofthelandingofWilliamIII.,andtheEnglishRevolutionof1688,thisyearpresentedaglowingaddressofcongratulationtotheFrenchNationalAssembly,whichwascarriedoverbyLordStanhopeandDr.Price.Ofcourse,theyandtheaddresswerereceivedwithgreatacclamationbytheAssembly.TheadmirationoftheFrenchRevolutionspreadoverBritain.Clubswereestablished,bothinLondonandinthecountry,insympathywithit,andthepressbecameveryGallicanandRepublicaninitstone,andtherewasmuchcorrespondingwithadmirersoftherevolutioninFrance,especiallywithThomasPaine,whohadnowtransferredhimselffromAmerica,withapoliticalfanaticdestinedtoacquireconsiderableattention,callinghimselfAnacharsisClootz,the"oratorofmankind,"andwithmanyothers.

Buonaparte'sarmynowoccupiedthecityandtherightbankoftheDanube.Thearchdukearrived,andpostedhimselfontheleftbank.Theriverwasswollenwiththespringrainsandthemeltingofthesnowinthemountains.AllthebridgeshadbeenbrokendownbywhichBuonapartemightcrosstoattacktheAustriansbeforetheywerejoinedbytheirotherarmies.BuonaparteendeavouredtothrowoneoveratNussdorf,aboutaleagueaboveVienna,buttheAustriansdroveawayhismen.HethereforemadeafreshattemptatEbersdorf,oppositetowhichtheDanubewasdividedintofivechannels,flowingamongstislands,thelargestofwhichwasonecalledLobau.Herehesucceeded,theArchdukeCharlesseemingunawareofwhathewasdoing,ortakingnocaretopreventit.Onthe20thofMaytheFrenchbegantocross,anddeployedonaplainbetweenthevillagesofAspernandEsslingen.Thirtythousandinfantryhadcrossedbeforethenextmorning,andsixthousandhorse,andtheywereattackedbytheAustrians,nearthevillageofAspern,aboutfourintheafternoon.Thebattlewasdesperatelycontestedonbothsides.ThevillagesofAspernandEsslingenweretakenandretakenseveraltimes.Thestrugglewentonwithgreatfury,amidfarm-yards,gardens,andenclosures,andwaggons,carts,harrows,andploughswerecollectedandusedasbarricades.Nightcloseduponthescene,leavingthecombatantsonbothsidesinpossessionofsomepartorotherofthesevillages.Onthefollowingmorning,the22nd,thefightwasrenewed,and,afteraterriblecarnage,theFrenchweredrivenbackontheriver.Atthismomentnewscamethatthebridgeconnectingtherightbankwiththeislandswasbrokendown,andthecommunicationoftheFrencharmywasindangerofbeingaltogethercutoff.Buonaparte,topreventthis,retreatedintotheislandofLobauwiththewholeofthecombatingforce,andbrokedownthebridgewhichconnectedtheislandswiththeleftbankbehindthem.TheAustriansfollowedkeenlyuponthemintheirretreat,andinflictedadreadfulslaughteruponthem.MarshalLanneshadbothhislegsshatteredbyacannon-ball,andwascarriedintotheislandinthemidstofthemêlée;GeneralSt.Hilairealsowaskilled.Thelossinkilledandwoundedonbothsidesamountedtoupwardsoffortythousand.FortwodaysNapoleonremainedontheisland,withhisdefeatedtroops,withoutprovisions,andexpectinghourlytobecuttopieces.GeneralHillerearnestlypressedtheArchdukeCharlestoallowhimtopasstheDanube,byopenforce,oppositetotheisleofEnzersdorf,whereitmightbedoneundercoverofcannon,pledginghimselftocompelthesurrenderofBuonaparteandhisarmy.Butthearchdukeappearedunderaspellfromthemomentthatthefightingwasover.Havinghisenemythuscoopedup,itwasinhispowertocutoffallhissupplies.Bycrossingtheriverhigherorlower,hecouldhavekeptpossessionofbothbanks,andatoncehavecutoffBuonaparte'smagazinesatEbersdorf,underDavoust,fromwhichhewasseparatedbytheinundation.Byanyothergeneral,theotherarmiesunderhisbrotherwouldhavebeenorderedupbyexpress;everysoldierandeverycannonthatAustriacouldmusterwithinanytolerabledistancewouldhavebeensummonedtosurroundandsecuretheenemy,takenatsuchdisadvantage.InnoothercountrybutAustriacouldNapoleonhaveeverleftthatislandbutasaprisonerwithasurrenderedarmy.

OneSamuelDowniewasnextarraignedonthe[440]samecharges,onthe5thofSeptember,asanaccompliceofWatt.ButitappearedthathehadbeenratherthedupeofWattandthespy-employingGovernmentthananythingelse;andthoughthejurypronouncedhimguilty,theyrecommendedhimtomercy.Hewasrespitedandeventuallypardoned;butWattunderwenthissentence,sofarasbeinghangedandbeheaded,—awarningtospieshowtheytrustedaGovernmentequallyfaithlesstothepeopleandtothetoolsbywhichtheysoughttobetraythem.Atlengththefiringmutuallyceased,buttheRussiansdidnotquittheirposition;itwastheFrenchwhodrewoff,andtheiroutposts,duringthefollowingnight,werealarmedbytheRussiancavalry.TheRussianshadfifteenthousandkilledandthirtythousandwounded;theFrenchtenthousandkilledandabovetwentythousandwounded,andoftheselatterveryfewrecovered,fortheyweredestituteofalmosteveryhospitalnecessary,evenlint.TheRussiansmadeonethousandprisonersandtheFrenchabouttwothousand.Thelossofgunsoneithersidewasnearlyequal.HadthebattlebeenresumedthenextdayitmusthavegonehardwiththeFrench;butKutusoffwasnotwillingtomakesuchanothersacrificeofhismen,andheresumedthepolicyofDeTollyandmadehisretreat,continuingittoMoscowinsomasterlyamanner,thatheleftneitherdead,nordying,norwounded,noranyarticleofhiscampequipagebehindhim,sothattheFrenchwereatalosstoknowwherehehadreallygone.Onthe12ththeylearned,however,thathehadretreatedtoMoscow,andBuonaparteinstantlyresumedhismarch.AtKrymskoiMuratandMortiercameuponastrongbodyofRussians,andwererepulsed,withthelossoftwothousandmen.TheRussianrear-guardthenhastenedonagaintowardsMoscow.

DuringthetimethatMalcolm,Keir,Hislop,andotherofficerswererunningdownthePindarrees,Major-GeneralSmith,whohadreceivedreinforcementsatPoonah,wasperformingthesameserviceagainstBajeeRao,thePeishwawhohadfurnishedCheetoowithfunds.HemarchedfromPoonahattheendofNovember,1817,accompaniedbyMr.MountstuartElphinstone.TheyencounteredthearmyofthePeishwaontheKistnah,wherehisgeneral,Gokla,hadpostedhimselfstronglyinaghaut.Thepasswasspeedilycleared,andthearmyofthePeishwamadearapid[140]retreat.Thechasewascontinuedfromplacetoplace,thePeishwadodgingaboutinanextraordinarymanner,till,atlength,hemanagedtogetbehindGeneralSmith,and,passingbetweenPoonahandSeroor,hewasjoinedbyhisfavouriteTrimbukjee,whomhehadlonglostsightof,withstrongreinforcementsofbothhorseandinfantry.GeneralSmith,sosoonashecoulddiscovertherouteofthePeishwa,pursuedit,butsoonaftertheMahrattasshowedthemselvesagaininthevicinityofPoonah.TosecurethatcityfromthePeishwa'sarms,CaptainF.F.StauntonwasdispatchedfromSerooronthelastdayoftheyearwithsixhundredsepoys,threehundredhorse,andtwosix-pounders;buthewasnotabletoreachPoonah.Theverynextday,the1stofJanuary,1818,hefoundhiswaybarredbythewholearmyofthePeishwa,consistingoftwentythousandhorseandseveralthousandfoot.Couldtheyhaveremainedalittlelonger,GeneralSmith,whowasonthetrackofthePeishwa,wouldhavebeenuptosupportthem.Butinthenightofthe2ndofJanuary,havingnoprovisions,Stauntonfellback,carryingwithhimallhiswoundedandhisguns,andreachedSeroorbynineo'clockonthemorningofthe3rdofJanuary.

Onthe13thofApriltheSpeakerreadtotheHouseanoticewhichhehadreceived,thatabillwouldbefiledagainsthim,intheCourtofKing'sBench,totrythevalidityofhiswarrantinthiscase,andtheHouseorderedtheletterandthenoticetobeenteredontheJournals.Onthe16thSirSamuelRomillymovedforthedischargeofGaleJones;butWindhamobservedthatameetingoftheelectorsofWestminsterwasannouncedforthemorrow,totakeintoconsiderationthecaseoftheirrepresentative,andthattoliberateJonesatthatmomentwouldbesuretobeattributedtofearonthepartoftheCommons.Themotionwas,therefore,rejected.

ThePrussianpeople,however,ontheirpart,wereclamorousforwar;theystillpridedthemselvesonthevictoriesofFrederick,calledtheGreat,andthestudentsandtheyoungnobleswerefullofbravado.But,unfortunately,theyhadnotgeneralslikeFredericktoplaceattheheadoftheirarmies,andtheirmilitarysystemwasentirelyobsolete.TheDukeofBrunswick,who,inhisyouth,hadshownmuchbraveryintheSevenYears'War,butwhohadbeenmostunfortunateinhisinvasionofFrance,in1792,wasnow,inhisseventy-secondyear,placedinchiefcommand,tocompetewithNapoleon.Nothingcouldexceedthefollyofhisplanofthecampaign.ThewholeforceofPrussia,includingitsauxiliaries,amountedonlytoaboutonehundredandfiftythousandmen.OfthesetheSaxons,whohadreluctantlyunitedwithPrussia,andhadonlybeenforcedintoco-operationbythePrussiansmarchingintotheircountry,and,inamanner,compellingthem,wereworsethanlukewarminthecause;theywerereadyatanymomenttojointheFrench.Besidesthese,andthetroopsofHesse-Cassel,theyhadnotanallyexceptthedistantRussians.Ontheotherhand,Napoleonhadaconsiderablysuperiorarmyofhisowninadvance,andhehadimmenseforcesbehindtheRhine,forhehadanticipatedawholeyear'sconscription.Hehad,moreover,hisflanksprotectedbyhisfriendlyconfederatesoftheRhine,readytocomeforward,ifnecessary.Inthesecircumstances,Prussia'spolicyoughttohavebeentodelayaction,bynegotiationorotherwise,tilltheRussianscouldcomeup,andthentohaveconcentratedhertroopssoastoresist,bytheirmomentum,theonsetoftheconfidentandbattle-practisedFrench.But,sofarfromtakingtheseprecautions,theDukeofBrunswickrushedforwardatonceintoFranconia,intotheveryfaceofBuonaparte,andlongbeforehecouldhavetheassistanceofRussia.Insteadofconcentratinghisforces,Brunswickhadstretchedthemoutoveralineofninetymilesinlength.HeandthekinghadtheirheadquartersatWeimar;theirleft,underPrinceHohenlohe,wasatSchleitz,andtheirrightextendedasfarasMühlhausen.ThePrussians,infact,appearedrathertobeoccupyingcantonmentsthandrawnintomilitarypositionforagreatcontest.BesidestheyhadinfrontofthemtheThuringianForest,behindwhichNapoleoncouldman?uvreashepleased.

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     WiththesamewantofsagacitywhichwasdrivingMinistersandParliamenttothelossofAmerica,theywerestillpersecutingWilkesintopopularity.Onthe14thofNovember,1768,SirJosephMawby,memberforSouthwark,presentedapetitionfromWilkes,recitingalltheproceedingsofGovernmentagainsthim,andprayingforhisbeingheardatthebaroftheHouse.WilkesappearedbeforetheHouseonthe31stofJanuary,wherehetookexceptiontotheword"blasphemous"asappliedtothe"EssayonWoman."Thurlow,afterwardsLordChancellor,amostswearing,blasphemingman,protestedthatiftheHousedidnotdeclareitblasphemous,itwouldbeadisgracetoit.However,thewords"impious"and"obscene"weresubstituted.Onthe1stofFebruarytheHousedeterminedthathispetitionwasfrivolous.ThenextdaytheHousewentintoanotherchargeagainstWilkes.IntheprecedingAprilLordWeymouth,previoustotheriotsinSt.George'sFields,hadissuedaletter,asSecretaryofState,tothemagistratesofLambeth,warningthemofthedangerofriotstakingplaceintheendeavourtofreeWilkesfromprison,andofferingthemtheaidofthemilitary.Wilkes,whileintheKing'sBench,hadobtainedacopyofthisletter,andsentittotheSt.James'sChroniclewithhisowncomments,stylingita"hellishproject,"andasthedirectcauseofthat"horridmassacre."WeymouthcomplainedtotheHouseofLordsthatthiswasabreachofprivilege.AconferencewashadwiththeCommons;WilkeswasbroughttotheBar,whereBaldwin,theprinter,hadacknowledgedthelettertobehis,andthen,sofarfromdenyingit,claimedthethanksofthecountryforhavingexposedthat"bloodyscroll."TheCommonsdecidedthathewasguiltyofaninsolentandseditiouslibel,andonthefollowingday,February3rd,onthemotionofLordBarrington,hewasexpelledtheHouse,byamajorityoftwohundredandnineteentoonehundredandthirty-seven.ThekinghaddirectlyaskedforsuchaverdictbyalettertoLordNorth,declaringthatWilkes'sexpulsionwas"highlyexpedientandmustbeeffected."

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     WhilstPrinceEugenehadbeenlabouringinvaintorecalltheEnglishGovernmentfromitsfataldeterminationtomakeadisgracefulpeace,theDutchenvoyVanBuyshadbeenequallyactive,andwithaslittlesuccess.TheMinistersincitedtheHouseofCommonstopasssomeseverecensuresontheDutch.TheyallegedthattheStatesGeneralhadnotfurnishedtheirstipulatednumberoftroopsbothforthecampaignsintheNetherlandsandinSpain;thatthequeenhadpaidabovethreemillionsofcrownsmorethanhercontingent.TheyattackedtheBarrierTreaty,concludedbyLordTownshendwiththemin1709,anddeclaredthatitcontainedseveralArticlesdestructivetothetradeandinterestsofGreatBritain;thatLordTownshendwasnotauthorisedtomakethattreaty;andthatbothheandallthosewhoadviseditwereenemiestothequeenandkingdom.Theyaddressedamemorialtothequeen,averringthatEngland,duringthewar,hadbeenoverchargednineteenmillionssterling—whichwasanawfulchargeofmismanagementorfraudonthepartoftheWhigMinisters.TheyfurtherassertedthattheDutchhadmadegreatacquisitions;hadextendedtheirtradeaswellastheirdominion,whilstEnglandhadonlysufferedloss.AnnegavehersanctiontothisaddressbytellingtheHousethatsheregardedtheiraddressasanadditionalproofoftheiraffectionforherpersonandtheirattentiontotheinterestsofthenation;andsheorderedherambassadorattheHague,thenewEarlofStrafford,toinformtheStatesofthesecomplaintsofherParliament,andtoassurethemthattheymustincreasetheirforcesinFlanders,orshemustdecreasehers.

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