高清图集:习近平四月精彩镜头全记录

D8prD-news 发布时间: 2020-07-07 08:25:32

“河内一分彩注册【注册大礼】”AnattempthasrecentlybeenmadebyM.GuyautotracetheinfluenceofEpicurusonmodernphilosophy.Wecannotbutthinkthemethodofthisableandlucidwriterathoroughly118mistakenone.Assumingtherecognitionofself-interestasthesoleorparamountinstinctinhumannature,tobetheessenceofwhatEpicurustaught,M.Guyau,withoutmoreado,setsdowneverymodernthinkerwhoagreeswithhimonthisonepointashisdisciple,andthenaddstothenumberallwhoholdthatpleasureistheendofaction;thusmakingoutaprettylonglistoffamousnamesamongthemorerecentcontinuatorsofhistradition.AmoreextendedstudyofancientphilosophywouldhaveshowntheFrenchcriticthatmoralistswho,inotherrespects,weremostopposedtoEpicurus,agreedwithhiminholdingthateverymannaturallyandnecessarilymakeshisowninterestthesupremetestofrightconduct;andthatonlywiththedefinitionofwelfaredidtheirdivergencebegin.Ontheotherhand,theselfishsystemsofmoderntimesdifferentirelyfromEpicureanismintheirconceptionofhappiness.WithHobbes,forinstance,whomM.GuyauclassesasanEpicurean,theidealisnotpainlessnessbutpower;thedesiresare,accordingtohisview,naturallyinfinite,andareheldincheck,notbyphilosophicalpreceptsbutbymutualrestraint;while,indeducingthespecialvirtues,hisstandardisnotthegoodofeachindividual,butthegoodofthewhole—inotherwords,heis,tothatextent,aStoicratherthananEpicurean.LaRochefoucauld,whoisofferedasanotherexampleofthesametendency,wasnotamoralistatall;andasapsychologisthediffersessentiallyfromEpicurusinregardingvanityasalwaysandeverywherethegreatmotivetovirtue.HadtheAtheniansagebelievedthishewouldhavedespairedofmakingmenhappy;fordisregardofpublicopinion,withinthelimitsofpersonalsafety,was,withhim,oneofthefirstconditionsofatranquilexistence.NorwouldhehavebeenlessaversefromthesystemofHelvétius,anotherofhissupposeddisciples.TheprincipaloriginalityofHelvétiuswastoinsistthatthepassions,insteadofbeingdiscouraged—asallpreviousmoralists,Epicurusamongthenumber,hadadvised—shouldbe119deliberatelystimulatedbythepromiseofunlimitedindulgencetothosewhodistinguishedthemselvesbyimportantpublicservices.OfSpinozaweneedsaynothing,forM.GuyauadmitsthathewasquiteasmuchinspiredbyStoicasbyEpicureanideas.Atthesametime,thecombinationofthesetwoethicalsystemswouldhavebeenmuchbetterillustratedbymodernEnglishutilitarianism,whichM.GuyauregardsasadevelopmentofEpicureanismalone.Thegreatesthappinessofthegreatestnumberisnotanindividualorself-interested,butauniversalend,having,asMillhasshown,foritsultimatesanctiontheloveofhumanityasawhole,whichisanessentiallyStoicsentiment.Itmaybeaddedthatutilitarianismhasnosympathywiththeparticulartheoryofpleasure,whethersensualornegative,adoptedbyEpicurus.Ingivingahigh,oreventhehighestplacetointellectualenjoyments,itagreeswiththeestimateofPlatoandAristotle,towhichhewassosteadilyopposed.Andindulyappreciatingthepositivesideofallenjoyments,itreturnstotheearlierhedonismfromwhichhestoodsofarapart.

ThecharactersinHomeraremarkedbythisincredulousdispositionindirectproportiontotheirgeneralwisdom.WhenAgamemnonrelateshisdreamtotheassembledchiefs,Nestordrylyobservesthatifanyoneoflessauthorityhadtoldthemsuchastorytheywouldhaveimmediatelyrejecteditasuntrue.Hector’soutspokencontemptforauguryiswellknown;andhisindifferencetothedyingwordsofPatroclusisequallycharacteristic.IntheOdyssey,Alcinouspointedlydistinguisheshisguestfromthecommonrunoftravellers,whosewordsdeservenocredit.ThatTelemachusshouldtellwhoishisfather,withtheuncomplimentaryreservationthathehasonlyhismother’swordforit,is128evidentlymeantasaproofoftheyoungman’sprecociousshrewdness;anditiswiththeutmostdifficultythatPenelopeherselfispersuadedofherhusband’sidentity.SointheAgamemnonofAeschylus,nothinglessthanthereportofaneye-witnesswillconvincetheChorusofoldmenthatTroyhasreallyfallen.218Finally,tocompletethelistofexamplesaffordedindependentlyofphilosophicalreflection,Herodotusrepeatedlyexpressesdisbeliefinthestoriestoldhim,or,whatismoreremarkable,holdshisjudgmentinsuspensewithregardtotheirveracity.

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Aristotleismoresuccessfulwhenheproceedstodiscusstheimagination.Heexplainsittobeacontinuanceofthemovementoriginallycommunicatedbythefeltobjecttotheorganofsense,keptupintheabsenceoftheobjectitself;—asnearanapproachtothetruthascouldbemadeinhistime.Andheisalsorightinsayingthattheoperationsofreasonareonlymadepossiblebythehelpofwhathecallsphantasms—thatis,faintreproductionsofsensations.Inadditiontothis,hepointsouttheconnexionbetweenmemoryandimagination,andenumeratesthelawsofassociationbriefly,butwithgreataccuracy.Heis,however,altogetherunawareoftheirscope.Sofarfromusingthemtoexplainallthementalprocesses,hedoesnotevenseethattheyaccountforinvoluntaryreminiscence,andlimitsthemtothevoluntaryoperationbywhichwerecallamissingnameorotherimagetoconsciousness.

Ontheotherhand,thissubstitutionofthesocialforthepersonalintegerinvolvesacorrespondingchangeinthe398valuationofindividualhappiness.WhatthepassionshadbeentolaterGreekphilosophy,thattheindividualsoulbecametoHobbes,somethingessentiallyinfiniteandinsatiable,whosedesiresgrowastheyaregratified,whosehappiness,ifsuchitcanbecalled,isnotaconditionofstablereposebutofperpetualmovementandunrest.556Here,again,theanalogybetweenphysicsandethicsobtains.Inboth,therewasanoriginaloppositionbetweentheideaofalimitandtheideaofinfiniteexpansion.Justas,amongtheearlierGreekthinkers,therewasaphysicalphilosophyoftheinfiniteor,asitsimpugnerscalledit,theindefinite,soalsotherewas,correspondingtoit,aphilosophyoftheinfiniteorindefiniteinethics,represented,notindeedbyprofessionalmoralists,butbyrhetoriciansandmenoftheworld.Theiridealwasnotthecontentedman,butthepopularoratororthedespotwhorevelsintheconsciousnessofpower—theabilitytosatisfyhisdesires,whatevertheymaybe.AndtheextremeconsequenceofthisprincipleisdrawnbyPlato’sCallicleswhenhedeclaresthattruehappinessconsistsinnursingone’sdesiresuptothehighestpointatwhichtheycanbefreelyindulged;whilehisidealofcharacteristhesuperiorindividualwhosetsatnaughtwhateverrestraintshavebeendevisedbyaweakandtimidmajoritytoprotectthemselvesagainsthim.

WhethersomeraptPrometheanutterance,

Inviewofsuchfactsasthese,wecannotblametheEpicureansiftheyregardedthedoctrineoffutureretributionasanythingbutaconsolatoryorennoblingbelief,andiftheydeemedthattoextirpateitwastocutoutamischievousdelusionbytheroots:—

Stillmoreimportantthantheseobservationsthemselvesisthegreattruthhederivesfromthem—sincerediscoveredandworkedoutindetailbyVonBaer—thatinthedevelopmentofeachindividualthegenericcharactersmaketheirappearancebeforethespecificcharacters.211Noristhisamereaccidentalorisolatedremark,but,asweshallshowinthenextchapter,intimatelyconnectedwithoneofthephilosopher’smetaphysicaltheories.Althoughnotanevolutionist,hehasmadeothercontributionstobiology,theimportanceofwhichhasbeenfirstrealisedinthelightoftheevolutiontheory.Thushenoticestheantagonismbetweenindividuationandreproduction;212theconnexionofincreasedsizewithincreasedvitality;213theconnexionofgreatermobility,214andofgreaterintelligence,215withincreasedcomplexityofstructure;thephysiologicaldivisionoflabourinthehigheranimals;216theformationofheterogeneousorgansoutofhomogeneoustissues;217thetendencytowardsgreatercentralisationinthehigherorganisms218—aremarkconnectedwithhistwogreatanatomicaldiscoveries,thecentralpositionoftheheartinthevascularsystem,andthepossessionofabackbonebyallred-bloodedanimals;219theresemblanceofanimalintelligencetoarudimentaryhumanintelligence,especiallyasmanifestedinchildren;220and,finally,heattemptstotraceacontinuousseriesofgradationsconnectingtheinorganicwiththeorganicworld,plantswithanimals,andtheloweranimalswithman.221III.

ReturningoncemoretoEpicurus,wehavenowtosumupthecharacteristicexcellencesanddefectsofhisphilosophy.Therevivaloftheatomictheoryshowedunquestionablecourageandinsight.OutsidetheschoolofDemocritus,itwas,sofarasweknow,acceptedbynootherthinker.Platonevermentionsit.Aristotleexaminedandrejectedit.TheopponentsofEpicurushimselftreateditasaself-evidentabsurdity.208OnlyMarcusAureliusseemstohavecontemplatedthepossibilityofitstruth.209.Butwhiletohavemaintainedtherighttheoryinthefaceofsuchuniversaloppositionwasaproofofnocommondiscernment,wemustrememberthatappropriatingthediscoveriesofothers,evenwhenthosediscoveriesareindangerofbeinglostthroughneglect,isaverydifferentthingfrommakingdiscoveriesforone’sself.NoportionofthegloryduetoLeucippusandDemocritusshouldbedivertedtotheirarrogantsuccessor.AnditmustalsoberememberedthattheAthenianphilosopher,byhistheoryofdeflection,notonlyspoiledtheoriginalhypothesis,butevenmadeitalittleridiculous.

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     Brunohimselfactedasamediatorbetweenthetwophilo384sophies.HissympathieswithPlatonismwerestronglypronounced,helookedwithadmirationonitsmediaevalsupporters,especiallyDavidofDinan;andregrettedthetimewhenOxfordwasafocusofrealisticteaching,insteadofbeingwhathefoundher,devotedtothepedantichumanismoftheRenaissance.547HefullyacceptedthepantheisticconclusionstowardswhichPlatonismalwaystended;butinproclaiminganabsoluteprinciplewhenceallspecificdifferencesareevolved,heiscarefultoshowthat,whileitisneitherFormnorMatterintheordinarysense,itmaybecalledMatterinthemorerefinedsignificationattachedtothattermbyPlotinusand,indeed,byAristotlehimself.Thereisacommonsubstanceunderlyingallabstractessences,justasthereisacommonsubstanceleftbehindwhenthesensiblequalitiesofdifferentbodiesarestrippedoff;andbothare,atbottom,thesame.ThusmonismbecamethebannerroundwhichtheolderformsofGreekspeculationralliedintheirassaultonAristotle’sphilosophy,thoughwhatmonismimpliedwasasyetveryimperfectlyunderstood.

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  • 扒皮成25pmk

     BesidestherevivalofPlatonism,threecauseshadconspiredtooverthrowthesupremacyofAristotle.TheliteraryRenaissancewithitsadorationforbeautyofformwasalienatedbythebarbarousdialectofScholasticism;themysticaltheologyofLuthersawinitanallybothofecclesiasticalauthorityandofhumanreason;andthenewspiritofpassionaterevoltagainstalltraditionattackedtheacceptedphilosophyincommonwitheveryotherbranchoftheofficialuniversitycurriculum.Beforelong,however,areactionsetin.Theinnovatorsdiscreditedthemselvesbyanextravagance,anignorance,acredulity,andanintoleranceworsethananythingintheteachingwhichtheydecried.NosoonerwastheReformationorganisedasapositivedoctrinethanitfellbackforsupportontheonlymodelofsystematicthinkingatthattimetobefound.TheHumanistswereconciliatedbyhavingtheoriginaltextofAristotleplacedbeforethem;andtheyreadilybelieved,whatwasnottrue,thatitcontainedawisdomwhichhadeludedmediaevalresearch.Butthegreatscientificmovementofthesixteenthcenturycontributed,morethananyotherimpulse,tobringaboutanAristotelianreaction.Afterwinningimmortaltriumphsineverybranchofartandliterature,theItalianintellectthrewitselfwithequalvigourintotheinvestigationofphysicalphenomena.HerePlatocouldgivelittlehelp,whereasAristotlesuppliedamethodiseddescriptionofthewholefieldtobeexplored,andcontributionsofextraordinaryvaluetowardstheunder372standingofsome,atleast,amongitsinfinitedetails.AndwemaymeasuretherenewedpopularityofhissystemnotonlybythefactthatCesalpino,thegreatestnaturalistoftheage,professedhimselfitsadherent,butalsobythebitternessofthecriticismsdirectedagainstit,andtheinvoluntaryhomageofferedbyrivalsystemswhichwerelittlemorethanmeagreexcerptsfromthePeripateticontologyandlogic.

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